 # Bland-Altman plot

Bland-Altman plots, also known as difference plots, are a powerful graphical tool for comparing two measurement techniques and assessing the agreement between two sets of data. The plot provides a visual representation of the difference between two measurements on the y-axis and the average of the two measurements on the x-axis. In essence, a Bland-Altman plot is a scatter plot where the differences between two measurements are plotted against their averages. This helps to visualize the degree of agreement between the two raters and identify any systematic bias.

## Example of Bland-Altman plot

Bland-Altman plots are widely used in medical research, industrial quality control and other fields where comparing two measurement methods is required. In the medical field, for example, it is often necessary to compare the results of a new measurement technique with a gold standard. The Bland-Altman plot is a powerful tool for this purpose, as it allows for the visualization of the agreement between the two methods and any systematic bias or random error.

### Example:

An example of a Bland-Altman plot is to compare the measurement of blood sugar using two different measuring systems. In this case the x-axis is the mean of the two measurements and the y-axis is the difference between the two measuring systems. The plot would show the agreement or disagreement between the two measurement techniques.

## Structure of a Bland-Altman plot

First, let's take a look at the basic structure of a Bland-Altman plot. The plot consists of a scatter plot of the differences between the two measurements against the averages of the two measurements. A horizontal line is also included on the plot, representing the mean difference between the two measurements. The plot also typically includes lines that represent the standard deviation, typically ±1.96 standard deviations of the differences, from the mean difference, which is used to identify any outliers in the data.

## How can a Bland-Altman plot be used?

The Bland-Altman plot can be used to Evaluate agreement, Identify any systematic bias and Find outliers in the data.

#### Evaluate agreement

One of the key advantages of Bland-Altman plots is that they can be used to evaluate the agreement between two measurement techniques.

#### Identify any systematic bias

The plot can be used to identify any systematic bias or random error in the data. For example, if the mean difference between the two measurements is consistently positive or negative, this may indicate a systematic bias in one of the measurement techniques. Additionally, if the scatter of the points on the plot is greater than the standard deviation, this may indicate the presence of random error in the data.

#### Find outliers in the data

Another important aspect of Bland-Altman plots is that they can be used to identify outliers in the data. Outliers can have a significant impact on the results of a study, and it is important to identify them in order to understand the overall agreement between the two measurement techniques. Outliers can be identified by looking for points that fall outside of the lines representing the standard deviation from the mean difference.

## How to create a Bland-Altman Plot?

You can easily create a Bland Altman plot online with DATAtab. To do this, simply copy your data into the table in the statistics calculator and click on the tab Charts (create charts online) or Reliability (Reliability analysis calculator). Then select the desired variables for which you want to create the Bland-Altman plot online.

Cite DATAtab: DATAtab Team (2023). DATAtab: Online Statistics Calculator. DATAtab e.U. Graz, Austria. URL https://datatab.net